Then things got uprooted
This worked very well for a while. But tech companies decided they wanted more control and a bigger slice of the advertising revenue. Historically, their advertising revenues as a share of the market did not match the ‘value’ of their user base. So this closed ecosystem allows them to talk directly to advertisers and ensure that any ads are directly relevant to the platform’s user base.
What’s more, as tech companies’ reach and power grew, they were suddenly dealing with complex global and regional privacy concerns. Think Mark Zuckerberg having to defend Facebook in front of the US Senate. This was when Google decided to kill third-party cookies on Chrome, nailing the coffin shut for intrusive tracking technology, and radically impacting the way programmatic platforms could target and reach users.
Essentially, the entire online media and advertising landscape had just been uprooted.